Physical Design Elements

Physical design elements includes strategies or concepts that require altering the physical environment in a temporary or permanent manner to help improve access, flow, or reduce transportation cost in a substantial manner.

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  • Access management allows agencies to manage vehicle access points, like driveways and intersections, to help road users safely and efficiently access desired locations like residences and businesses.

  • Bicycle facilities consist of the space designated for bicycles on the road, adjacent to the road, or on a separate path that supports safe and efficient travel by bicycle.

  • Channelization and delineation are design elements that can separate directions of traffic, restrict certain movements, or direct traffic to a particular location.

  • Low-cost safety enhancements are part of a systemic application of road and roadside treatments that can improve safety at intersections and along many miles of road. Enhancements can range from maintenance to safety features.

  • Pedestrian facilities are the public right-of-way spaces that are used by people on foot to get from place to place. Improvements to pedestrian facilities include new crosswalk designs for increased safety, curb bulb-outs to reduce the distance it takes to cross a roadway, curb ramps for accessibility, and signal timing improvements that make pedestrians easier for drivers to see at intersections.

  • A road diet changes roadway usage by replacing some of the typical traffic lanes to make space for other uses like bicycle lanes, sidewalks, or parking.

  • A roundabout is a type of circular intersection without traffic signals or stop signs, where drivers travel counterclockwise around a center island. When entering the roundabout, drivers yield to existing traffic, then enter the intersection and exit in their desired direction.

  • Conducting a safety analysis and applying effective countermeasures are crucial in decreasing the number of collisions, reducing congestion, and maintaining the efficiency of the transportation system.

  • Signs help regulate traffic flow and provide valuable information to road users in order to encourage safe and efficient travel.

  • Speed management techniques encourage people to use safe speeds while driving. Managing vehicle speeds reduces the number and severity of collisions and increases the efficiency of traffic flow.

  • Traffic calming reduces vehicle speeds by using roadway design elements, like roundabouts, narrowed roads and speed humps. Traffic calming supports the livability and vitality of residential and commercial areas by improving the safety, mobility, and comfort for all road users, with special care taken for pedestrians and bicyclists.

  • Turn lanes are dedicated lanes for left and right turning vehicles